From *The Bureau of Labor Statistics Occupational Outlook Handbook*

Mathematics is one of the oldest and most fundamental sciences. Mathematicians use mathematical theory, computational techniques, algorithms, and the latest computer technology to solve economic, scientific, engineering, physics, and business problems. The work of mathematicians falls into two broad classes—theoretical (pure) mathematics and applied mathematics. These classes, however, are not sharply defined and often overlap.

Theoretical mathematicians advance mathematical knowledge by developing new principles and recognizing previously unknown relationships between existing principles of mathematics. Although these workers seek to increase basic knowledge without necessarily considering its practical use, such pure and abstract knowledge has been instrumental in producing or furthering many scientific and engineering achievements. Many theoretical mathematicians are employed as university faculty, dividing their time between teaching and conducting research.

Applied mathematicians, on the other hand, use theories and techniques, such as mathematical modeling and computational methods, to formulate and solve practical problems in business, government, engineering, and the physical, life, and social sciences. For example, they may analyze the most efficient way to schedule airline routes between cities, the effects and safety of new drugs, the aerodynamic characteristics of an experimental automobile, or the cost-effectiveness of alternative manufacturing processes.

# Words from the Faculty

"Beneath all the numbers, mathematics is really about Careful Observation, Critical Thinking and Clear Communication. These three skills are absolutely essential, no matter what your future plans involve!" -- Ed Ford

"My interests specifically lie in constrained optimization, modeling and simulations, and supply chain performance. Applied mathematicians can find employment with the U.S. military, transportation and logistics companies, as well as computer networking companies. Any company that has a question that needs to be answered, such as “How do we satisfy our customers and employees at the best price?” will need to hire a mathematician." -- Morris Akers

"I think it is only fair to admit up front that a math major is not for everybody and that not everybody can handle or appreciate math. For me the most compelling case to be made for math is the way that math majors perform outside of their discipline. Math and physics majors consistently outperform all other majors on the LSAT, GMAT, and MCAT (usually with physics taking the top spot, and math just behind). Are these results a product of the student who chooses a math major, or the training that the major provides? It is hard to say, but I believe that it is a combination of the two.

The fact remains that for a diligent student who is willing to accept a challenge, a math major provides a unique way to think about and solve problems. This is an approach which allows success in a variety of fields– even in fields which themselves require little math." -- Matt Harvey

# Careers in Mathematics

A degree in mathematics can lead to a career in a variety of fields.

- Academic Instruction
- Actuarial Sciences
- Cost Estimator
- Cryptanalyst
- Data Analyst
- Quantitative Analyst
- Research Scientist
- Statisticians

To view more information about careers in mathematics see the early career profiles at the American Mathematical Society

# Resources

American Mathematical Society

American Statistical Association

Mathematics Association of America

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics

Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics