J-Bot

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J-Bot.jpg

Contents

Functions

This robot roams around freely without supervision. This robot can either perform on a floor or on the ground. The PING ultrasonic sensor will detect any objects in its way and drive around them. Omar Arriaga designed this project and for instruction on how to replicate this robot, go to his webpage

I enclosed the project in a waterproof material and this robot can function under water.

Source Code

#include <AFMotor.h> // Enables the Motor library
#include <Servo.h> // Enables the Servo library


Servo PingServo;
AF_DCMotor motor1(1); // Motor 1 is connected to the port 1 on the motor shield
AF_DCMotor motor2(2); // Motor 2 is connected to the port 2 on the motor shield
int minSafeDist = 11 ; // Minimum distance for ping sensor to know when to turn
int pingPin = A0; // Ping sensor is connected to port A0
int centerDist, leftDist, rightDist, backDist; // Define variables center, left, right and back distance
long duration, inches, cm; // Define variables for Ping sensor 


void setup() {
PingServo.attach(10); // Servo is attached to pin 10 in the motor shield
PingServo.write(90); // Center the Ping sensor (puts it at 90 degrees)
motor1.setSpeed(215); // Sets the speed of the first motor (At 0, the motors are turned off. 255 is the fastest setting that you are able to use, I used 215 to not push the motors too hard.)
motor2.setSpeed(215); // Sets the speed of the second motor (At 0, the motors are turned off. 255 is the fastest setting that you are able to use, I used 215 to not push the motors too hard.)

Serial.begin(9600); // Enables Serial monitor for debugging purposes
Serial.println("Serial test!"); // Test the Serial communication

}

void AllStop() {
motor1.run(RELEASE); // Turns off motor 1
motor2.run(RELEASE); // Turns off motor 2
}
void AllForward() { // Makes the robot go forward
motor1.run(FORWARD); // Motor 1 goes forward
motor2.run(FORWARD); // Motor 2 goes forward
Serial.println("Going forward"); // Prints a line in the serial monitor
}
void turnRight() { // Makes the robot go right
motor2.run(BACKWARD); // Turns off motor 2
motor1.run(FORWARD); // Motor 1 goes forward
delay(1600); // Time required to turn right (1.6 seconds)
Serial.println("Motors going Right"); // Prints a line in the serial monitor
}
void GoBack(){ // Makes the robot go back
motor2.run(BACKWARD); // Motor 2 goes back
motor1.run(BACKWARD); // Motor 1 goes back
delay(1600); // Time Required to go back (1.6 seconds)
Serial.println("Backward"); // Prints a line in the serial monitor
}
void turnLeft() { // Makes the robot go Left
motor2.run(FORWARD); // Motor 2 goes forward
motor1.run(BACKWARD); // turns off motor 1
delay(1600); //Time Required to turn left (1.6)Seconds
Serial.println("Motors going Left");// Prints a line in the serial monitor
}

// Starts the loop to decide what to do
void loop() 
{
LookAhead();
Serial.print(inches);
Serial.println(" inches"); // Prints a line in the serial monitor
if(inches >= minSafeDist) /* If the inches in front of an object is greater than or equal to the minimum safe distance (11 inches), react*/
{
AllForward(); // All wheels forward
delay(110); // Wait 0.11 seconds
}else // If not:

{
AllStop(); // Stop all motors
LookAround(); // Check your surroundings for best route
if(rightDist > leftDist) // If the right distance is greater than the left distance , turn right
{
turnRight();
}else if (leftDist > rightDist) // If the left distance is greater than the right distance , turn left
{
turnLeft();
}else if (leftDist&&rightDist<minSafeDist) // If the left and right distance is smaller than the min safe distance (11 inch) go back
{
GoBack();
}
}
}

unsigned long ping() {
pinMode(pingPin, OUTPUT); // Make the Pingpin to output
digitalWrite(pingPin, LOW); //Send a low pulse
delayMicroseconds(2); // wait for two microseconds
digitalWrite(pingPin, HIGH); // Send a high pulse
delayMicroseconds(5); // wait for 5 micro seconds
digitalWrite(pingPin, LOW); // send a low pulse
pinMode(pingPin,INPUT); // switch the Pingpin to input
duration = pulseIn(pingPin, HIGH); //listen for echo

/*Convert micro seconds to Inches
-------------------------------------*/

inches = microsecondsToInches(duration);
cm = microsecondsToCentimeters(duration);
}

long microsecondsToInches(long microseconds) // converts time to a distance
{
return microseconds / 74 / 2;
}
long microsecondsToCentimeters(long microseconds) // converts time to a distance
{
return microseconds / 29 / 2;
}

void LookAhead() {
PingServo.write(90);// angle to look forward
delay(175); // wait 0.175 seconds
ping();
}

void LookAround(){
PingServo.write(180); // 180° angle
delay(320); // wait 0.32 seconds
ping();
rightDist = inches; //get the right distance
PingServo.write(0); // look to the other side
delay(620); // wait 0.62 seconds
ping(); 
leftDist = inches; // get the left distance
PingServo.write(90); // 90° angle
delay(275); // wait 0.275 seconds

// Prints a line in the serial monitor
Serial.print("RightDist: ");
Serial.println(rightDist);
Serial.print("LeftDist: ");
Serial.println(leftDist);
Serial.print("CenterDist: ");
Serial.println(centerDist);
}

Materials Used

Finished project

While building the project

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